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        首页 初中英语语法讲座

        初中英语语法讲座.doc

        初中英语语法讲座

        hungry143
        2019-04-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

        简介:本文档为《初中英语语法讲座doc》,可适用于初中教育领域

        初中英语语法讲座这一讲里,主要帮助同学们掌握名词、冠词、数词的用法,特别是针对同学不易掌握的方面。一、名词关于名词,我们必须掌握名词的数,名词的格。┌单数可用a、an来修饰可数名词单数,在元音发音开头的单词前用an,而不是a可数名词名词的根据数└复数不可数名词复数的构成方法:()一般在复数名词后加s,如:dogdogs。()以s、x、ch、sh结尾的名词加es,如:watchwatches。()以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加es,如:countrycountries。请区别:如果是元音字母加y结尾的名词,则只须加s如:monkeymonkeys。()以o结尾的名词,只有potato(土豆),tomato(西红柿)加es构成复数。()以f、fe结尾的名词,变f、fe为v再加es,如:knifeknives。单复数形式相同的词:sheepsheep,fishfish,ChineseChinese,JapaneseJapanese特殊变化的单词有:()toothteeth,footfeet()manmen,womanwomen,policemanpolicemen,FrenchmanFrenchmen请区别:German(德国人)Germans()childchildren常以复数形式出现的名词:people(人),clothes(衣服),trousers(裤子)glasses(眼镜),这些名词作主语时,同学们应特别注意它们的谓语,用复数。如:Myclothesare(be)newerthanyours有些名词看似复数形式,实际上是单数。这一点是同学不易掌握的,应特别加以记忆。如:news(消息),maths(数学),physics(物理)Nonewsisgoodnews可用howmany,many,afew,few,alotof,lotsof,some,any等来修饰可数名词复数。Howmanyarethereinyourpencilbox(knife)不可数名词:常见的不可数名词有:water,rice,fish,meat,等。应特别记medicine,news,work,homework,housework,money,chalk,weather,cotton,wood不可数名词无复数,作主语时??闯傻ナ?。如:Somebreadoverthere(be)常用howmuch,much,alittle,little,alotof,some,any等来修饰不可数名词。常用apieceof,acupof等来表示不可数名词的量。如要表达“两片面包”这样的意义,bread仍为不可数名词,不加s,而piece则可加s。即:twopiecesofbread请区别:可数名词也可用量来表示,如:三箱苹果threeboxesofapples例:、Thesetwopiecesofbreadareoverthere(be)、CouldIhavethree,pleaseApieceofbreadBpieceofbreadsCpiecesofbreadDpiecesofbreads名词的格名词所有格的构成方法,在名词后加“'s”。如:Tom→Tom's译为“…的”,若遇上以s结尾的复数名词,则在s后加“'”即可。如:Teachers'Day,twoweeks'holiday,而不以s结尾的复数名词的所有格,仍按惯例加's。如:Children'sDay关于名词所有格,应掌握以下几点:可用名词所有格表示地点。如:myaunt's我姑姑家。gotothedoctor's去医生家。表示两人共同拥有,在最后一个名词后加's如:LucyandLily's露西和莉莉的掌握词组:agirloffive一个五岁的女孩afriendofmine我的一个朋友egThewhiteshirtisandblueoneisA、Kate,myBKate's,mineCKate,mineDKate's,my二、冠词冠词是词汇中的基础的,也是简单的部分,所以同学们有必要掌握其基本用法,中考也会体现这一点。归纳起来,同学们应该掌握以下几点:冠词指不定冠词a,an和定冠词the不定冠词an常用于元音发音开头的词前,如:anhour,anEnglishcar请区别:ausefulmachine指上文提到过的人或物,用定冠词the在世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词the如:thesun,themoon,theearth定冠词the用于序数词前,表示方位的名词和形容词最高级前。如:thefirst,thebest,inthesouth在复数姓氏前加the,表示××一家人,??闯筛词?。如:TheBrownsaregoingtoShanghaiforaholidaythissummer在介词短语中常用定冠词the,如:inthebox,behindthechair特别注意不能用定冠词the的几个方面:()在节日、星期、月份、季节、年等词前不用冠词。如:insummer,inAugust请区别:inthespringof(这里表示特指,故加the)()一日三餐和球类运动名不用冠词。如:havebreakfast,playfootball()一些固定词组中,如:gotobed,gotoschool,bybus,,atnight在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别:infrontof在…前面inthehospital在医院里inthefrontof在…范围内的前部inhospital(生病)住院There'smetrelongroadbehindhospitalAan,anBa,aCan,theDa,the三、数词同学们首先应会读会写所有基数词和序数词,以及与数词有关的钟点表达法。对数词的考查,中考常采用单选题及听力题,这些题型归纳起来,应掌握以下几点特别容易出错的地方?;时湫蚴?。其规律为:,,特殊记,加th从起(first,second,third,fourth)少t,去e,千万别忘记(eighth,ninth)逢逢,ve变f(fifth,twelfth)到,y要变ie(twentieth,ninetieth)若是几十几,前基后序别倒位(ninetyfirst)hundred,thousand,million在构成具体的数字时用单数形式。如:fivehundredpeople只有在表达笼统的多数时才加s,构成复数形式。hundredsof数以百计的,成百上千的thousandsof数以千计的,成千上万的millionsof数百万的这些词组前不能用具体数字。序数词常与定冠词the连用。eg:HenryhaslearnedeightFrenchwordsthisyearAhundredBhundredsChundredofDhundredsofThelessonisthemostdifficultoneinBookTwo(twenty)另外,同学们还应掌握与数词有关的钟点表达法。顺读法(钟点分钟)如::fourthirty:fourfortyfive:fourfifteen倒读法(分钟topast钟点)如::halfpastfour:fifteenpastfouraquarterpastfour:fifteentofiveaquartertofive练习题Atthebeginningofthe(twenty)century,theworld'spopulationwasaboutmillionArethese(watch)yoursYesYoudon'tlookwellYou'dbettergotothe(doctor)atonceWouldyougiveme,pleaseAtwopapersBtwopieceofpaperCtwopiecesofpaperDtwopiecesofpapersTherearethreeandseveninthepictureAmonkeys,sheepsBmonkeys,sheepCmonkies,sheepDmonkies,sheepsAlotofaretalkingwithtwoAGermans,FrenchmansBGermen,FrenchmansCGerman,FrenchmenDGermans,FrenchmenJuneisAtheChildren'sDayBtheChildrens'DayCChildren'sDayDChildrens'Day思考题peoplewentouttoseewhathadhappenedAThousandsofBThreethousandofCThousandofDThreethousandsWehavebeenintheschoolforAthreeandahalfmonthBthreeandahalfmonthsCthreemonthandahalfDthreemonthsandhalfEnglishisusefullanguageAA,anB,aCThe,anDA,四、代词(一)人称代词主格Iyouhesheitweyouthey宾格meyouhimheritusyouthem物主代词形容词性myyourhisheritsouryourtheir名词性mineyourshishersitsoursyourstheirs反身代词myselfyourselfhimselfherselfitselfourselvesyourselvesthemselves形容词性物主代词在句中只能作定语,相当于一个形容词,名词性物主代词在句中可作表语、主语和宾语,相当于一个名词。注意名词性物主代词在句中所指代的关系,是单数还是复数。如:⑴Thesebooksaren'toursOursarenew(这里ours=ourbooks)⑵ThisisnotourroomOursisoverthere(这里ours=ourroom)"of名词性物主代词"表示所属如:asisterofhis他的一个妹妹afriendofmine我的一个朋友人称代词在并列使用时的顺序为:“第二人称,第三人称,第一人称”。如:You,sheandIallenjoythemusic关于反身代词,同学们须掌握其固定结构:enjoyoneself=haveagoodtime(过得很愉快)byoneself=alone(单独、独自)helponeselfto…(随便吃喝些)learnsthbyoneself=teachoneselfsth(自学)练习题Whosetrousersarethese,IthinkATheyBTheirCTheirsDThemNobodytaughtEnglishHetaughtAhim,himselfBhis,himselfChim,byhimselfDhis,his(二)修饰可数词manyfew表否定意义afew表肯定意义修饰不数名词muchlittle表否定意义alittle表肯定意义few和little与quite或only连用时,常加不定冠词a如:Therearequiteafewnewbooksinthelibrary用little,alittle,few,afew填空:IoftenstayathomebecauseIhavefriendshereJim,don'tgoandgetsomewaterThereiswaterintheglassThoughhelearnedFrenchonlyweeksHecanspeakverywellLilyhadbreadbecauseshewashungryyesterday(三)不定代词:something,anything,nothing当形容词修饰这三个不定代词时,常后置。如:somethingnewThere'sintoday'snewspaper中考题AimportantanythingBimportantsomethingCanythingimportantDsomethingimportant(四)另外,代词some,every,all,both,either,anothersome(一些,某)一般用于肯定句中注:some有时也可用于表示请求的疑问句中。any(任何)多用于疑问句和否定句①Willyougivemesomewater②Wouldyoulikesomemeat③MayIasksomequestions④CouldIhavesomeapplesevery单数名词“每一个”强调共性,作定语,形式上为单数。each“每一个”强调个性,作定语、主语、宾语和同位语,常与of连用。如:EachstudentwasaskedtotryagainEachofthemhasaniceskirtEverychildlikesplayinggamesall“(全部)都”表示三者或三者以上,作同位语时,一般放在连系、助动词之后,行为动词之前。none“没有”表示三者或三者以上都不,后常跟介词of如:WeareallfromCanada=AllofusarefromCanadaNoneofusisareafraidofdogs(单、复数均可)both“(两者)都”作主语时,看作复数作定语时,后跟名词复数。either“两者中任何一个”,作主语时,谓语用第三人称单数作定语时,后跟名词单数。neither“(两者)都不”,含有否定意义,用法同either。如:Theybothswimwell=BothofthemswimwellTherearetreesonbothsidesofthestreet=TherearetreesoneithersideofthestreetNeitherofusisgoingtoBeijingnextweekNeitheranswerisrightanother单数名词,“另一个”one…theother“一个……,另一个……”theother复数名词=theothers“其他的人或物”(指确定范围内剩下的全部)others“别人”(五)疑问代词个“wh”,即who,whose,whom,what,which这里,which是同学们不易掌握的内容,其实,同学们只须记住,对作定语的内容提问,常用whichI'mgoingtotaketheskirtontheright(中考题)areyougoingtotake五、形容词副词大多数的形容词、副词都有三个等级:原级:比较级:比较,更一些最高级:最(A)构成:(规则情况)情况变化方法例词单音节词和少数双音节词:一般情况加er,estclevercleverercleverest以字母e结尾加r,stnicenicernicest重读闭音节、末尾只有一个辅音字母时双写加er,estbigbiggerbiggest以辅音字母加y结尾变y为i加er,estearlyearlierearliest部分双音节和多音节词在词前加more,mostslowlymoreslowlymostslowly不规则变化,须熟记:goodwellbetterbestmanymuchmoremostfarfartherfarthestbadbadlyillworseworstlittlelessleast(B)常见的使用情况as…as…和一样(中间用原级)notas(so)…as和不一样(中间用原级)…than…比(用比较级)有范围修饰的用最高级如:in,of,among或用从句修饰的eg⑴Winteristhecoldestseasonoftheyear⑵ThisisthebestfilmthatIhaveeverseen比较级and比较级意为“越来越…”eg:wetterandwettermoreandmorebeautifulThe比较级,the比较级越…就越…eg:Themore,thebetter越多越好(C)注意点:形容词最高级前一定要用the,副词最高级前可省略??捎胢uch,alittle,even,still等修饰比较级。在比较级中为了避免重复,在than后常用one,that,those等词来替代前面提到过的名词。eg:TheweatherhereiswarmerthanthatofShanghai(D)掌握三种同义句转换:Heistallerthananyotherstudentinhisclass=Heisthetallest(student)inhisclassThisfilmislessinterestingthanthatone=Thisfilmisn'tasinterestingasthatone=ThatfilmismoreinterestingthanthisoneIprefermathstoEnglish=IlikemathsbetterthanEnglish中考题:Whichdoyoulike,fish,meateggsAbest,orBbetter,orCbest,andDbetter,and此外,关于形容词、副词的内容同学们还须掌握:形容词修饰名词作定语,跟在连系动词之后作表语。副词修饰动词、形容词或其它副词enough属例外词:形副enoughtodoenough名词egsheisoldenoughtogotoschool她够上学的年龄了。区别几组易混淆的副词:也too用于肯定、疑问句also较为正式书面语either用于否定句已经already常用于肯定句、疑问句yet常用于否定句、疑问句不再no(notany)longer从时间上讲no(notany)more从动作上讲如此这样such修饰名词eg:suchabigboxso修饰形容词、副词eg:sobig单独、独自alone作表语=byoneself孤独的lonely可作表语、定语eg:Agroupofgirlsaresinginganddancingoverthere(happy)练习题ThestudentsarehavingagoodtimeintheparkSomearedrawingbythelakeareclimbingthehillAOthersBOtherCAnotherDTheotherThereisn'tintoday'snewspaperAimportantsomethingBimportantanythingCanythingimportantDnothingimportantWhosewatchisthis,MaryIsityoursister'sNo,MumIt'snotIt'sAhers,myBher,myCMine,hersDhers,mine思考题TheChangjiangRiveristhethirdriverintheworldAlongBlongerClongestDthelongestAnelephantisthanahorseAmorestrongBmuchstrongerCthemoststrongDmuchmorestrongWhichdoyoulike,tea,orangeorwaterAgoodBWellCBetterDBest六、介词与形容词搭配的词组有:beafraidof(怕)beangrywith(生某人的气)beawayfrom(不在某地)bedifferentfrom(与…不同)begoodat(善于)begoodbadfor(对…有益有害)beinterestedin(对…感兴趣)belatefor(迟到)begetreadyfor(为作好准备)besureof(对…有把握)beworriedabout(为…感到担忧)介词后常用人称代词宾格和动词ing形式)Youmusttakegoodcareofher)Thankyouforteachingussowell几组易混淆的介词A“在之后”in一段时间(用于一般将来时)after一段时间(用于一般过去时)after一点时间(常用于一般将来时)如:ThebabystoppedcryingafterhalfanhourThebabywillstopcryinginhalfanhourTheywillvisittheirteacherafterFridayBfor一段时间since过去的一点时间这两者均用于现在完成时,具体在时态部分,我会继续向同学们讲解。Cbemadeof"用……制成"bemadein“由某地制造”bemadebysomebody“由某人制成”Din,on,at表时间in“在某月(季节、年)等”eg:in,inJanuary,insummer固定词组:inthemorning,inaweek,inaminute,intime,intheendon"用于指具体的某一天或专指某一天上午、下午或晚上等"eg:onChristmasDay,onthenightofFebruaryat“用于具体时刻前和某些固定词组中”固定词组:atseven,atthemoment,atnight,atlast,atfirst,atnoon,attimes,atonce,atthistimeoftheyear,atthebeginningof,attheendofthismonth,atthesametime注意:在表时间里,下列情况下一般不用介词。词组里有:next,last,this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,one,every,all以及thedaybeforeyesterday和thedayaftertomorrow前不用介词。如:不能说intomorrow,只能说tomorrow在明天Eexcept宾格doingsomething"除…之外”(不包括本身)EveryoneisatschooltodayexceptLinTao(同义句转换)=OnlyLinTaoisn'tatschooltodayF“用”通过交通工具byplane用语言inEnglish通过媒介onoverthetelephone,onovertheradio,onTV用工具手段withapen,withone'shandsGbetween“在~和~(两者)之间”betweenand,betweenthetwoamong在之间(三者或三者以上)egSuespentovertwohoursherhomeworkyesterdayeveningAonBwithCatDover七、连词并列连词both…and既~又~谓语用复数动词neither…nor既不~也不~含否定意义,(就近原则)谓语动词由靠近它的那个主语来决定单复数。either…or…“或者…或者…”“不是…就是…”and“和”连接两个并列成分,连接谓语时,两个动词时态应一致。but“但是”表转折,不能与though同时出现在句中。or“或者”在否定句中,并列句中的列举常用or,而不用and。eg:Ihavebrothersandsisters(否)Idon'thavebrothersorsisters=Ihavenobrothersandnosisters引导宾语从句的连词陈述句:that可省略一般疑问句:ifwhether“是否”特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词引导原因状从的有:because(不能与so同时出现在句中)引导时间状语从句的连词:Awhen(当…时候),assoonas…(一…就),not…until(直到…才),after(在…之后),引导的主从复合句,主句为一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时来代替一般将来时。eg:Iwon'tleaveuntilhecomesbackB过去时。eg:Wehaven'tmeteachothersincesheleftherelastyearCeg:MyfathercameinwhileIwasdoingmyhomework引导条件状语从句的连词:if“如果”,引导条件状从,主句用一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时。请区别于if“是否”相当于whether,引导宾语从句,时态根据语境确定eg:)Idon'tknowifit(rain)tomorrow)Ifit(rain)tomorrow,I(notclimb)thehills)JoanandMaryhaven'tseeneachothertheyleftschoolfiveyearsagoAasBbeforeCafterDsince八、动词可以分为四类:实义动词(或称行为动词)连系动词、情态动词以及助动词。一、实义动词(行为动词)不及物动词:不能直接跟宾语,常须加了介词后方能加宾语如:lookat(for,after),getto(on),operateon,hearof,hearfrom,pointto(at),worryabout,knockat,playwith,thinkabout等及物动词:后面必须跟宾语,意义才完整在及物动词副词构成动副搭配时,代词放中间这一点同学们常易忘记,故应特别加以记忆。如:turnon(√)turnontheradio(√)turntheradioon(√)turnonit(×)turniton(√)常见的动副搭配的词组有:puton,pickup,lookup,wakeup,tryon,writedown,moveaway,takeaway等注意行为动词的几种变化形式原形enjoy第三人称单数enjoys过去式enjoyed过去分词enjoyed现在分词enjoying象过去式,过去分词,同学们须熟记初中所学的不规则动词变化表。现在分词的变化方法,一般是直接在动词后加ing,有几个特殊的可加以记忆:lielying,diedying要双写的单词有:一个m(swimswimming)一个g(digdigging)三个n(runrunning,winwinning,beginbeginning)三个p(stopstopping,shopshopping,dropdropping)还有六个t(sitsitting,hithitting,getgetting,letletting,putputting,forgetforgetting)同学们特别应注意forget,begin这种双音节单词。另外,eat,wait这两个词不是重读闭音节,故不能双写加ing,这也是同学们易犯的错误。请区别几组易混淆的同义动词第一组lookseewatchreadlook看lookatthebirdsee看见seeafilmwatch观看、注视watchTV,watchafootballmatchread读,阅读readabook,readnewspapers第二组sayspeaktalktellsay说(不及物动词)①saytosb,(后跟引语)②sayitagain(后常跟it)speak讲,发言(不及物动词)①speakatthemeeting②learntospeak③speakEnglishtalk谈话(不及物动词)①talkaboutsth(谈论某事)②talkwithsb(和某人交谈)tell告诉,讲(及物动词)①tellsbtodosthtellsbnottodosth②tellsbaboutsth(后常跟某人)③tellthetime“报时”tellastory“讲故事”用say,speak,talk,tell的适当形式填空:CanyouJapaneseTheteacherusnottoplayinthestreetWouldyoupleaseitinEnglishWhatareyouabout第三组borrowlendborrow借进(短暂动词)①borrowsth(借某物)②borrowsthfromsb(向某人借某物)如MayIborrowyourbikeMineisbrokenlend借出(短暂动词)lendsbsth=lendsthtosb(把某物借给某人)如:Youmustn'tlendittootherskeep借(一段时间),常与一段时间的时间状语连用,为延续性动词。如:HowlongmayIkeepit第四组bringtakebring带来(表示从远处拿到说话的地点来),常与here,me搭配如:Pleasebringmyhattometomorrowtake带走(表示从说话地点拿到远处去),常与there,away搭配如:TakeyourraincoatwithyouIt'sgoingtorain第五组listenhearlisten听不及物,常与介词to连用如:Ilistenedcarefully,butheardnothingHear听到及物后直接跟宾语hearfromsb收到某人的来信如:Jim'smotherhaven'theardfromhimforalongtimehearof听说如:Haveyouheardofthenews第六组lookforfindfindoutlookfor寻找(强调动作)find找到发现(强调结果)如:Welookedforhimeverywherebutdidn'tfindhimfindout查明(通过调查研究找到事实的真相)如:Canyoufindoutwhobrokethewindow第七组putonweardressputon穿上(强调动作)如:It'scoldoutsidePleaseputonyourcoatwear穿着(强调状态)如:Lucyiswearingabluesweatertodaydress打扮,给穿衣服①dresssboneself给某人(或自己)穿衣服②getdressed穿好衣服③dressup打扮穿上盛装”如:Sheoftendressesupinaredskirt第八组forgetleaveforget忘了某物如:Iforgottotellyouaboutitleave把某物忘在某地如:Kateleftherkeytoherroomathome有些及物动词后可以跟双宾语即直接宾语(表物)和间接宾语(表人),间接宾语通常位于直接宾语之前,若颠倒两者的位置,则通常在间接宾语前加一个介词(to或for)。))drawsthforsbpasssthtosbmakesthforsbgivesthtosbmendsthforsblendsthtosbbuysthforsbshowsthtosbgetsthforsbbringsthtosbcooksthforsbtakesthtosbkeepsthforsbwritesthtosbreturnsthforsbsendsthtosbEg:HowmuchdidyouallthesethingsAspendBgiveCcostDpayfor二连系动词eg:Hisgrandpahasbeenforovertenyears(die)常见的连系动词有:beadjn是,在becomenadj变成turnadj变得getadj变得growadj长得keepadj保持着feeladj感到lookadj看上去seemadjn看起来好象smelladj闻起来fallasleep入睡三情态动词can:能,会表示能力,相当于beableto??梢?表示许可,相当于may。can’tbe不可能may:可以,可能,或许maybe可能请区别maybe副词可能must:必须,表示肯定的猜测mustbe准是,一定是could:比can语气更委婉,客气,并不表示过去时。注意回答形式:⑴MayIYes,youmayNo,youcan't(mustn't)⑵MustIYes,youmustNo,youneedn'thaveto,不得不。如:⑴HermotherisillShehastostayathomeandtakecareofher⑵Youmustlookafteryourclothesshould表示"应当,应该",与疑问词连用表意外,惊奇。WhatshouldIdo我该怎么办呢will,would在交际用语中,would更客气,表邀请。Willyou好吗Wouldyou四、助动词助动词有do,does,did,have,has,will,would等五、动词不定式形式:to动词原形特点:无人称和数的变化。在句中不能作谓语??梢杂凶约旱谋鲇锘蜃从?构成不定式短语。使役动词:let,make感观动词:see,hear,watch,feel,notice之后必须使用省略to的动词不定式。如:⑴Nothingcouldmakehimgetangry⑵Ioftenhearhersinginthemorninghadbetter后使用省略to的动词不定式。如:YouhadbetterdoitbyyourselfIt作形式主语,可用todo作真正的主语。如:⑴Ittookmehalfanhourtofinishthework⑵It'sbadforyoutoreadinbed⑶It'sverykindofyoutohelpme动词不定式常与特殊疑问词连用。如:⑴Hedidn'tknowwhentostart⑵Wedon'tknowhowtogetthere⑶Ican'tdecidewhichsweatertochoose记住一些特殊结构:⑴Wouldlikelovetodo想要做⑵Whynotdo为什么不做⑶Helpsb(to)dosth帮助某人做某事⑷It'stimetodosth是干某事的时候了。⑸spend(in)doingsth=Ittakessbtodosth花费(时间)做某事⑹tootodosth太以致不能⑺can'twaittodosth等不及做某事,迫不及待做某事⑻stopdoingsth停止做某事stoptodosth停下来开始做某事练习题CanyouanswerthisquestioninEnglishNo,IAneedn'tBmustn'tCmaynotDcan'tTheteacherwantedusExercise,butyouletmeExerciseAtodo,doBtodo,todoCdo,todoDdo,doMissGreensawawalletonthegroundwhenshewalkedpasttheschoolgateAlieBLyingCliesDtolieWhathaveyoudonethemilkI'vejustitAwith,eatenBfor,eatenCwith,drunkDfor,drunkIt'srathercoldtodayYou'dbettermoreclothesbeforeyougooutAputonBwearCtoputonDtowearTheradioitwillgetwarmerlaterAsaysBspeaksCtalksDtellsYoumustbeverytiredWhynotarestAstophavingBstoptohaveCtostophavingDtostoptohaveLiPingisyoung,buthemanyplacesofinterestinSouthChinaAwenttoBhasbeeninChasgonetoDhasbeentoMothertoldmeinthesunAnotreadBdon'treadCreadnotDnottoreadDoyouoftenseehervolleyballontheplaygroundAplayBplayedCplaysDtoplay─It'sfinetodayWhyoutforapicnic─That'sagoodideaAnotgoBdon'tgoCtonotgoDnottogo思考题Alicedidn'thearwhattheteachersaidjustnow,soshedoesn'tknowhowtheproblemAdoBdidCtodoDdoingWhenthelittleboysomeonecomingupstairs,hestoppedAheard…cryingBlistened…tocryCheard…tocryDlistened…cryAnnwasjustfallingwhenthetelephonerangAasleepBsleepCsleepingDsleptImyrulerathomeCanIuseyours,pleaseAforgotBhaveforgottenCleftDhaveleftJimthegoodnewstohisclassmatesthismorningAspokeBtoldCsaidDtalked九、构词法eg:ToanAmerican,aChineseisa(foreign)前缀例词派生词un“不”happyunhappylikeunlikeusualunusualfriendlyunfriendlyim“不”possibleimpossible后缀例词派生词er“人”teachplaycleanteacherplayercleanerdrivedriver(以e结尾,r)runrunner(重读闭音节,双写er)winwinnertraveltravelleror“人”inventinventorvisitvisitorly(副词后缀)badbadlyquickquicklycarefulcarefullyhappyhappilydeepdeeplyluckyluckilyusualusuallynoisynoisilyslowslowlyangryangrilystrongstronglyquietquietly特例:truetrulyterribleterriblypossiblepossiblyful(形容词后缀)carecarefulhelphelpfuluseusefulforgetforgetfuly(形容词后缀)rainrainyluckluckycloudcloudynoisenoisy(以e结尾,去e,加y)snowsnowysunsunny(双写,加y)windwindyion(名词后缀)inventinventionoperateoperationness(名词后缀)busybusinessgoodgoodness一些特例:动词形容词动词现在分词转化为名词sleepasleepboatboatingdiedeadbuildbuildingenjoyenjoyablebeginbeginningcrosscrossing名词形容词meetmeetingfriendfriendlyturnturningsouthsouthernshopshoppingwoolwoolendangerdangerous动词过去分词转为形容词differencedifferentfryfriedworryworried动词名词breakbrokenknowknowledgeloselostflyflightpleasepleasedpleasepleasurecolourcoloured名词名词动词现在分词、过去分词转为形容词farmfarmer农夫followfollowinginterestinterested“感兴趣的”只作表语,仅用于beinterestedindevelopinteresting“有趣的”可作表语和定语developed“发达的”developing“发展中的”练习题、LucycanwritealetterJapanesethoughshehaslearneditonlyafewmonthsAfromBtoCinDwith、TheywillhaveanEnglishtesttwodaysAforBatCinDafter、WuDongwasborntheeveningofApril,AatBinConDto、Ihaven'theardhershelefthomeAfrom,sinceBfrom,afterCof,whenDof,as、Tomdidn'tknowJackwouldleaveforBeijingtomorrowAhowBweatherCwhetherDwhat、Hisparentswere(happy)becausehehadfailedtheexamagain、MrsGreenlikedtostay(safe)atthesameplace、The(visit)fromFrancearegoingtovisitourschoolthisafternoon思考题、Thefarmerwastiredhecouldn'tfallasleepAvery…toBtoo…toCso…thatDneither…nor、Workhard,youwon'tcatchupwiththeothersAbutBandCifDor、Thegameisveryandshe'sinitAinteresting,interestingBinterested,interestedCinterested,interestingDinteresting,interested

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